LEDs are electronic components (semiconductor diodes) that are capable of emitting light when an electrical current goes through them. LED is the acronym for light emitting diode.
These have a chip made of a semiconductor material filled with impurities, which create a P-N junction. LEDs, unlike traditional light bulbs, have polarity (being the anode the positive terminal and the cathode the negative terminal) therefore they only work when they are powered with a current in the right direction.
The electroluminescence happens when stimulated by a voltage differential applied on its terminals, the negative electrical charges (electrons) and the positive electrical charges (holes) are attracted to this junction zone, where they combine with each other releasing energy in the form of photons as illustrated below.
This process results in a much more efficient light emission than that or traditional bulbs since the energy conversion happens with less energy wasted as heat and more energy freed as photons.
LEDs are components that can emit a wide range of wavelengths depending on the different chemical elements present in them (example: AlGaInP, GaAs, GaInN, GaP, etc.) giving as a result a wide range of colors, from infrared, all visible spectrum (red, orange, yellow, green, cyan, blue), through ultraviolet; which makes them quite versatile in their use on any application that require a light source with specific wavelength that couldn’t have been possible to achieve previously with traditional bulbs.
Advantages of LEDs:
There are many advantages that LEDs have over traditional light fixtures such as incandescent light bulbs, halogens bulbs, neon tubes, fluorescent tubes, etc. Here we list some of them:
- Significantly reduce power consumption when compared to traditional lighting fixtures since they don’t release so much energy in the form of heat.
- Have a much longer lifetime (30,000 to 100,000 hours), which reduces luminaire replacement and maintenance costs.
- Work with very low current and voltage which makes them safer and more reliable in the implementation.
- aVery small heat generation relative to the output luminous flux.
- as they are solid state, they can be implemented in applications with certain degree of vibration or impact.
- They are excellent to be used in systems with micro controllers with TTL voltage as they work within a low range of voltage (2-3 V).
- Fast ON/OFF – OFF/ON response time, virtually instantaneous.
- Their brightness can be manipulated through frequency modulation
- They are ideal for multicolor lighting fixtures designed for the wide range of wavelengths that can be emitted.
- Allow for the manufacturing of lighting devices that are much more robust and of easier installation.
On our site you will find a wide variety of lighting fixtures made with LEDs, which can be adapted to your application.
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